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Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) is considered one of the greatest writers. The eventful works do not leave anyone indifferent; they greatly influenced the literature of the 20th century.
It is interesting that the author himself lived an interesting and colorful life. That is why some of the facts of the life of the writer are so interesting, by themselves turning into fascinating stories.
Hemingway fought for James Joyce. It turns out that the legendary writer had a best colleague friend. Hemingway developed a warm relationship with the Irish writer and poet James Joyce. This couple often walked and drank in Paris. It was there that James Joyce often fought in bars. Why he chose such a hobby remains a mystery, because the novice writer had health problems. Not only was he fragile, he did not even see the face of his rival. Luckily for Joyce, he had a good literary friend and fighter, Hemingway. Not only did he love boxing, he also owned it well. The famous American boxer Jack Dempsey even said that he was afraid to fight Hemingway. After all, he had the feeling that he could be seized by the most real madness. And to stop a writer, he had to hurt every time. And every time Joyce got into a fight, it was enough for him to shout: "Deal with him, Hemingway!". A friend had to defend his nondescript comrade. So Joyce and Hemingway became the first and last pair of literary boxers in history.
Hemingway was an extreme fisherman. In 1934, the writer received an advance payment for his story book. He spent all the money on the purchase of the 11.5-meter yacht "Pilar", which he immediately redesigned. It was at this moment that Hemingway became addicted to fishing, becoming a real expert. In the summer of 1938 alone, he managed to catch 52 marlins, which seems fantastic. In Cuba, Hemingway became such a legendary fisherman that in 1960 Fidel Castro even held a competition named after the writer. But some of his fishing methods can be described as unorthodox. So, in 1935, Hemingway caught a shark. It doesn't seem like such a miracle, just fighting her in the boat, he somehow managed to shoot twice with the Colt and shoot himself in the legs. In another case, which later influenced the creation of the work "The Old Man and the Sea", Hemingway was able to catch a record large fish. Together with his friend Mike Streter, the writer hooked on a marlin, which in their opinion was more than 4 meters in length. Fishermen fought with him for several hours, trying to drag him onto the ship. When sharks began to circle nearby, Hemingway began to shoot at them with a Thompson submachine gun. But the blood of predators only attracted their new brethren. By the time the marlin was hauled aboard, the fish was practically ripped in half, but still weighed 227 kilograms.
Hemingway hunted submarines with the Bully Fleet. In 1942, German submarines began sinking US cargo ships. The Navy was still recovering from heavy casualties at Pearl Harbor and had to ask civilian volunteers to help patrol the coast in private yachts. These assistants became known as the "Hooligan Fleet". People simply patrolled the area, reporting everything they saw with the help of a radio to the ground. There was only one unusual assistant - this, of course, Hemingway. He called himself a captain and began patrolling the coast of Cuba in order to sink a submarine. For this, the writer had a weapon in the form of a Thompson machine gun and hand grenades. Hemingway has assembled a motley crew of former bullfighters, Basque athletes, businessmen and marines. The writer believed that the submarine would pay attention to his ship "Pilar" and rise to the surface. To destroy such a small ship, the Germans will feel sorry for torpedoes, and they will try to use onboard weapons. According to Hemingway's plan, the yacht should have approached the submarine, his team had to throw grenades into the conning tower and complete the rout with machine guns. It sounds rather extravagant, but Hemingway never sank, although he never found a single submarine. This suggests that the patrols were just an excuse to go fishing and get drunk with friends.
Cheating while working as a war correspondent. In 1944, the writer worked as a war correspondent for the American magazine Coller’s. Hemingway already had a similar experience, at 44 he was no newcomer. The writer was present at the landing in Normandy, but he remained at that moment on board the ship. The military considered him an important person, afraid of losing. But they quickly realized that Hemingway was not the kind of person to constantly care about or tell him what to do. While traveling with the 22nd regiment, the writer received permission to conduct an intelligence operation in the city of Rambouillet. He soon became the general leader of a partisan detachment consisting of militias, a secret agent, several French soldiers and civilians. All of them unquestioningly obeyed the orders of their superior, calling him "Father", "Captain" or even "Great Captain". The guerrilla thugs adored Hemingway so much that they even began to copy his manners and style. The detachment grew to 200 people, more and more residents and French soldiers joined him. Hemingway himself, working in front of the main forces of the allies, even wore the uniform of a colonel, in which he led his soldiers into battle several times. Although Hemingway was eventually acquitted for his partisan activities, the involvement of war correspondents in hostilities is in violation of the Geneva Convention. The journalist used weapons, shot people and acted like an ordinary military man. Hemingway was tribunal, but he just lied there and returned to the battlefields again. The writer took part in a huge battle on the German border in November 1944, which killed more than 33 thousand Americans. He himself managed to survive, receiving a Bronze Star for bravery two years after the end of the war.
Hemingway fought Orson Welles. In 1937, the actor was hired to participate in the documentary film Spanish Land. Hemingway wrote the lyrics for him. But when he heard Wells read it aloud, he made a scandal. The writer didn't like the way the actor's voice sounded. Wells then suggested some changes to Hemingway's original script, mainly cutting out large chunks of text. The writer got even more angry! The squabble quickly turned into a stream of mutual insults, as a result, Hemingway even said: "Some damn dumbass from the art theater thinks he can tell me how to write!" Wells responded with sarcasm, copying his opponent's voice and depriving him of his masculine notes. Soon the struggle moved from words to assault. The writer and actor even took to the stage in front of a documentary on it. While pictures of fighting and war were displayed above them, Wells and Hemingway beat each other in the foreground. But later they reconciled and became good friends. However, this did not stop the writer from deleting all of Wells's text and replacing it with his own.
Hemingway was a cat lover. In 1931, the writer acquired a special cat. She was white and polydactyl, meaning she had six toes on each paw due to a genetic mutation. Such a gift was made by a friend of the writer, Captain Dexter. Hemingway named his pet "Snowball". The writer became obsessed with this rare mutation; at the end of his life, about fifty of these rare cats lived on his Key West estate. One day, Ham was forced to shoot Willie the cat when hit by a car. The touched writer even wrote letters to him, telling him how bored he was. Hemingway did so much to promote the breed that it is now even named after him. Currently, the house in Key West is given to the author's museum. Those who are lucky enough to visit there will be able to see that polydactyl cats live everywhere today. They represent different breeds, they have one thing in common - the increased number of toes. These animals move freely around the house, they are allowed to do whatever they want. Almost all of them are direct descendants of Snezhka. It seems that this four-legged friend of the writer had the same free disposition as Hemingway himself. A special commission concluded that such a family of rare cats is a national treasure.
Hemingway believed he was being watched by the government. Towards the end of his life, the writer was emotionally and morally exhausted, and he developed paranoia. He began to think that he was constantly being watched, spied and tapped by "feds" While driving the car, the writer thought that other cars were following him on purpose. Hemingway stopped going to bars, he did not like the way strangers looked at him. One night, driving past the bank and seeing the delayed employees there, the writer considered them to be government agents, tracking him personally. The paranoia grew stronger, and as a result, his family and friends became worried about Hemingway's condition. The writer was sent to a psychiatric hospital, where he was treated with electric shock therapy. In 1960s medicine, this was common. But Hemingway's condition worsened even more. He saw FBI agents in everyone, believed that his phone was constantly being listened to. As a result, the writer began to try to commit suicide, which he managed over time. And the most tragic thing is that he had every reason for such paranoia.
The government really followed him. The writer is a classic example of the old adage at work: "If you are paranoid, it does not mean that you are not being followed." For years, people believed that Hemingway's mania was simply a sign of his growing madness. And while friends of the writer considered his fears unfounded, the FBI actually followed him. In 1983, years after Hemingway's suicide, documents were published under the Freedom of Information Act. It became clear that the observation of the writer was personally initiated by the head of the FBI, Edgar Hoover. The document with detailed results of the investigation was 127 pages long. And Hemingway's paranoia had a basis - his telephones were indeed tapped by the feds, his car was monitored, and his bank accounts were checked. Why did the FBI even pay attention to the greatest American writer? Edgar Hoover was generally suspicious of writers. This is evidenced at least by the persecution of George Steinbeck, simply for the sake of his discomfort. Hoover feared Hemingway because of his level of fame and connections with respected people. The authorities suspected that the writer might have had long-standing contacts in Cuba. It is likely that Hoover was right in worrying about the reliability of the writer. After all, he was on the list of KGB agents in the United States for a long time.
Hemingway was a KGB agent. In the 1940s, Hoover watched over everyone he didn't trust. Usually it was about famous people, representatives of the intelligentsia or simply those who disagree with the authorities. We will no longer find out what dossier on Hemingway was in the FBI, but it is known for sure that the writer was really a KGB agent all this time. In the early 1990s, many of the archives of the Soviet secret service were declassified. It became known that the writer was recruited during his trip to China, giving the pseudonym "Argo". Hemingway then met frequently with Soviet agents in Cuba and England. The documents indicate that the spy was active in trying to help the KGB. But Hemingway never became the new James Bond. The information he got turned out to be useless. In the 1950s, the spy was considered unfit for further use, his name disappeared from the KGB lists. Now one can only guess what Hemingway was guided by when making such a decision on cooperation with the USSR. Perhaps he decided to "play" for the sake of literary inspiration, giving only useless information? Or was drunkenness hindered its real benefits?
The proximity of death. Despite all his recklessness, Hemingway never died in numerous alterations, but committed suicide himself. But dozens of times his life hung in the balance. A machine-gun burst pierced his legs, 273 mine fragments hit his body. Hemingway was repeatedly involved in accidents and disasters. He suffered severe bruises, bone fractures, concussions. Twice he was wounded while hunting, and nearly burned out in a forest fire. Hemingway survived skin cancer, anthrax, malaria, diabetes, hepatitis, and pneumonia. His kidney and spleen were torn, and the base of his skull was broken. At the same time, the vertebra successfully fused together, thus avoiding paralysis. And just as fate tested the writer for perseverance, he himself seemed to be testing his characters for firmness of character.
Unusual autograph. It turns out that Hemingway suffered from peiraphobia. This is what they call the fear of public speaking. The writer never trusted even the most sincere compliments from his admirers. And most of all, he did not like signing autographs at such meetings. Unsurprisingly, Hemingway's signatures are now highly prized. One fan, Victor Hill, made a bet with a friend that he could get an autograph from the writer. It seemed impossible. For three months, an annoying admirer annoyed the writer with a request to give him an autograph. Finally he gave up and wrote to the pursuer on the inside cover of the book: "Victor Hill, a real son of a bitch who cannot understand the answer" no! "
Love for women's cocktails. If the courageous James Bond preferred vodka with martini, then Hemingway loved cocktails "Daiquiri" and "Mojito". This addiction seems feminine. But psychologists can easily explain this. In their opinion, such drinks are chosen by those men who remain children in the depths of their souls. And although Hemingway fought a lot, fought, entered into fights with wild animals, he was not able to protect a weak woman. The writer was attracted by strong personalities who came to defend their homeland, not afraid of the sight of blood, looked after the wounded, drove cars and went out in peace. And the recklessness of the writer could turn out to be the reverse side of the fear of death and the unconscious desire to prove first of all to himself his courage.
Unusual upbringing. Hemingway seemed like a model of masculinity, and yet his mother wanted a girl, not a boy. She was generally a stubborn woman who sometimes did strange things. Until Ernest reached the age of four, he was dressed up in women's dresses and his hair was grown long. And then the mother suddenly decided that her son would make a good musician. The boy immediately began to give lessons on playing the double bass, for which they even took him from school a year earlier. But the maternal plans were not destined to come true - the writer himself admitted that he played disgustingly on this musical instrument.
Standing work. Over the years, the writer has published seven novels, six collections of stories and two more popular science books.Many of his works are considered classics of world literature today. Most of the books were created in Hemingway's bedroom, some of which he made his workplace. At the same time, the writer preferred to create while standing on his feet. He only occasionally shifted weight from one leg to the other. During the day of work, he wrote up to seven pencils.
Hunter S. Thompson investigated the suicide of the writer, but committed theft from him. The suicide of the writer in 1961 shocked the whole world. Hemingway had a great influence on his colleagues, who barely endured the death of an idol. One of those people whose lives suffered from this was Hunter S. Thompson. The life of this writer was also rife with adventure. In 1964, he traveled to Ketchum, Idaho to visit the very house where Hemingway spent the last two years of his life. Thompson was writing an article for The National Observer entitled "What Brought Hemingway to Ketchum." The writer spoke about his hero emotionally, but in the conclusion noted that he was "an old, sick person with many problems." While working on the article, Thompson noticed an impressive pair of moose horns hanging over the entrance to Hemingway's office. The writer decided that he would definitely not be able to do even half of all those crazy things that his idol. Then he decided to at least a little taste of madness by stealing these horns.