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If not for these people, nothing would have stopped the underworld. The names of Sherlock Holmes, Hercule Poirot, Mrs. Marple are known to any fan of detective stories, and just to the average reader.
But all these characters are fictional. And the vivid biography of some detectives served as a pretext for the creation of already literary heroes.
Eugene François Vidocq (1775-1857). This man managed to visit both sides of the war between crime and the law. Vidocq was born in Arras, France, to a baker's family. At the age of 14, a teenager committed his first crime - he accidentally killed a fencing teacher. As a result, Vitok decided to flee his hometown in America. But the trip did not take place - Eugene ended up in the army, where he turned out to be a very bad soldier. Vidocq participated in numerous duels, was punished, and eventually deserted. Eugene spent his youth in criminal gangs, where he constantly robbed and killed. For numerous escapes from prison he was nicknamed "werewolf" and "king of risk". As a result, the former criminal friends made life so difficult for the Frenchman that he decided to take an unusual step - Vidocq offered his services to the prefecture of Paris. In 1811, he created a special brigade, which consisted of former criminals. Vidocq believed that only a criminal can understand and catch criminals. There were bad rumors about a group called Security. Vidocq spent 20 years at the head of his brigade, after which he resigned. In 1833 he opened his own bureau of investigation, the "private police". Thus, it was Vidocq who became one of the first professional detectives. The pinnacle of his career was the position of head of the office of the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Lamartine government. Vidocq is considered the father of world private investigation and detective affairs, he is revered as the ancestor of the criminal investigation department. The detective served as a prototype for several literary and cinematic characters at once. It was Vidocq who began using ballistic expertise. Once, during the investigation, he decided to investigate the size of the bullet, proving that it could not have been fired from the weapon of the accused.
Alan Pinkerton (1819-1884). Pinkerton was born in Glasgow, Scotland. In 1842, he emigrated to America, where he took place as a detective. In 1846, young Pinkerton was elected sheriff of his town. After 4 years, he left government service and founded his own detective agency. The services of this office were in demand, because it specialized in railroad thefts. The agency's famous motto is “We never sleep”. Among the main successes of this organization are the prevention of the assassination attempt on President Lincoln in Baltimore in 1861, as well as the arrest of the organizers of the theft of 700 thousand dollars from the Adams Express railroad company. Pinkerton's agency was the first to introduce photographs of criminals and their detailed descriptions. Such portraits were sent to large cities of the country, which significantly accelerated the capture of bandits. It is believed that Pinkerton founded and his sons developed the classification of criminals. The detective started a file of famous crooks with an indication of their specialization. The famous detective died in 1884, the cause was gangrene that developed due to an accidental bite of the tongue. The detective himself became the prototype for the literary character Nat Pinkerton, known as the "king of detectives." Pinkerton's agency still exists today, owned by the Swedish company Securitas AB.
Duane Chapman (born 1953). This detective is atypical, nevertheless he knows his business. The activities of the American bounty hunter Chapman are constantly covered by television. Chapman, nicknamed "The Dog" for his hunting passion, is a regular star on talk shows. And in this case, the former criminal became the detective. At the age of 24, Duane was convicted of armed robbery. He himself denies his participation in the crime, nevertheless he spent a year and a half behind bars. Chapman's family detective business is attended by his sons and relatives. The activities of these detectives are distinguished by their relentlessness towards criminals, they seek to catch the fugitives alive or dead. As a result, the law constantly has claims against the famous Bounty Hunter. Chapman himself is distinguished by fearlessness, he has repeatedly confronted dangerous criminals, kidnappers, rapists, drug dealers. The person of the detective is constantly in sight - he is arrested for illegal actions, then he shows racial prejudice.
Stepan Sheshkovsky (1727-1794). From a young age, Stepan learned to read and write. As a small man, he began to serve in the Siberian order, and in 1740 was sent on a business trip to the Secret Chancellery. There Sheshkovsky liked it, he managed to transfer to the state office of investigative affairs. The young, talented employee was noticed by Count Shuvalov, which served as the basis for a quick career. At the age of 30, Sheshkovsky, on the advice of his guardian, was appointed by the Empress Elizabeth herself as secretary of the Secret Chancellery. The dissolution of this organization did not destroy the detective's career. The new empress, Catherine, needed such people. Sheshkovsky was entrusted with the most important search cases. It was Stepan who was interrogating Pugachev, recording in detail his testimony. Sheshkovsky, on duty, investigated not only political affairs, but also personal imperial affairs. The detective went down in history as a tough and principled policeman, he managed to develop his own method of interrogation. The common people were afraid of him, and the nobles were afraid. The detective himself did not hesitate to use torture in interrogations, although he himself was often caught and beaten by brave daredevils-avengers.
Arkady Koshko (1867-1928). Koshko was born in Minsk, in a wealthy family. He chose a career in the military, but the service weighed him down. After all, even as a child, Arkady read detective novels. As a result, he realized that his calling was forensics and resigned. Koshko began his service in the police in Riga as a simple inspector. The application of the most advanced European techniques, as well as the personal courage of the detective, led to rapid promotions and awards. After 6 years, Koshko became the head of the Riga police, and in 1908 he became the chief of the Moscow police. The detective managed to develop a new personality identification system based on the collection and classification of anthropometric and fingerprint data. This allowed the Moscow detectives to collect a large file of criminals. Such a system was even borrowed by Scotland Yard. The period of service in Moscow brought Koshko real fame, he was appointed head of the entire criminal investigation department in the country. In 1913, at a seminar in Switzerland, the Russian detective police were recognized as the best in the world in solving crimes. After the 1917 revolution, General Koshko emigrated to France. There, he was unable to apply his talents, working in a store. Koshko was repeatedly invited to serve in Scotland Yard, but for this it was necessary to take British citizenship.
Ivan Osipov (1718-1756). A man nicknamed Vanka-Kain managed to become not only a legendary detective, but also a legendary robber. He was born into a peasant family in the Yaroslavl province. Ivan managed to steal from his master, and then bring him down. As a reward for this, he received freedom. Osipov's new home became a thieves' den. After a series of high-profile adventures in Moscow, the robber went to the Volga, where he joined the gang of Ataman Zori. In 1741, Vanka-Cain unexpectedly came to the Moscow detective order, offering his services to catch other thieves and robbers. So Osipov was admitted to the civil service, received at the disposal of a military command. Only now, catching and betraying petty thieves, Vanka-Kain played his own game - he extorted money, opened a gambling house, covered big bandits, and even openly robbed. The atrocities committed in Moscow brought investigative commissions there. Osipov's activities were gradually revealed, and in the detective order itself, the entire personnel was replaced. The two-faced detective was sentenced to death, and then the sentence was commuted to Siberian hard labor.
Osip Shor (1891-1978). The activity of this man laid the foundation for the most famous literary character. True, Ostap Bender was not a detective, but he cannot be denied cunning, resourcefulness, and persistence in achieving his goal. Ostap Benjaminovich Shor was born in Nikopol, but spent his childhood in Odessa. His studies in St. Petersburg were interrupted by the revolution. Trying to return to Odessa, Osip on the way home presented himself as a grandmaster, then a groom, then a representative of an underground organization. And he even spent one winter in the status of the fat aunt's groom. In Odessa, Shor began working in the criminal investigation department, in particular, fighting with the gang of Mishka Yaponchik. The detective did not spare the bandits, but mercilessly destroyed those who resisted. Unsurprisingly, the criminals quickly betrayed their accomplices. After the bandits Yaponchik mistakenly killed his brother instead of the inspector, Osip quit his job and moved to Moscow. There he talked a lot about his adventurous adventures, which was heard by the writer Kataev. It was he who suggested the plot to Ilf and Petrov. Shore was a cheerful and sociable person who was thrown through life.
Yakov Vagin (1926-2010). This man is considered one of the founders of the Soviet school of investigation. Yakov was born in Kharkov in 1926. He worked in the Ministry of Internal Affairs for 65 years. With the outbreak of the war, Vagin and his family were evacuated to Perm. From there, on a Komsomol ticket, he was sent to the internal affairs bodies. A serious school of life took place in Yakutia, in the department of combating banditry. Then Vagin returned to Perm, where at the age of 27 he headed the first regional police department. In 1969, the detective became the head of the criminal investigation department of the Perm region. There he was able to fully display his best qualities. In terms of detection rates, Perm was second only to Moscow and Leningrad. Vagin was able to solve the high-profile case of the Vedernikov gang, to catch the Kungur maniac. The policeman was distinguished by extreme humanity, he stood up for his subordinates like a mountain. This allowed them to work calmly and make non-standard decisions. A talented organizer, Vagin introduced the most advanced means of solving crimes, including night vision devices. In the investigation teams, he recruited specialists of different profiles, each of whom, as an element of the clock, took his place.
Ivan Putilin (1830-1889). Ivan Dmitrievich Putilin belonged to the family of an ordinary collegiate registrar from Novy Oskol. At 23, the young man goes to serve in the police, where he gets the position of a junior assistant to the quarterly overseer in the market. But Putilin immediately showed his talents and demonstrated courage in the capture of dangerous criminals. At the age of 27, he already has an order and a medal. His career begins to develop at a breakneck speed. The huge number of cases solved also contributes to this. Putilin is called the Russian Pinkerton. In 1866, the detective was put at the head of the created detective police of the capital of the Russian Empire. In those years, there were no such high-profile cases in St. Petersburg that would have gone unnoticed by Putilin. He was noted for observation, strictness and love for his work. At 45, Putilin is already a general, he is retiring for health reasons. However, his active nature cannot stand a measured life, and soon the detective returns to his post to continue the fight against crime. The final retirement happened in 1889. Putilin went to his estate, where he finished writing his memoirs "40 years among robbers and murderers."
Charles Field (1805-1874). Scotland Yard is a large organization, but people like Charles Field brought fame to it. Initially, he dreamed of being an actor, but poverty pushed him to public service. Field began his service as a simple sergeant, soon rising to the rank of inspector at shipyards. In 1845, Charles joined the detective department, from where he left after 7 years as a chief. The development of the police during these years fascinated Charles Dickens. He accompanied the constables on numerous night trips. The writer became very friendly with the detective. In Bleak House, it is from Field that the character of Detective Bucket is written off. After retiring, the detective continued his activities as a private detective, although his activities were not welcomed by the authorities. For unnecessary interference in the investigation, a principled Englishman was even deprived of his pension for a while. For him, the investigation was a kind of game, Field liked to disguise himself, doing it even when he shouldn't.