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Suicide is an extreme measure for a person to solve all his problems. However, in the old days, suicide could even testify to the strength of a person.
For example, the losers of a battle or war killed themselves to avoid shame or captivity. Our selection contains the most famous cases of mass suicide committed on various occasions.
Religious movement "Temple of the Nations", Guyana, 1978. This terrible tragedy occurred on October 18, 1978. Immediately 909 members of either a religious movement or the "Temple of the Nations" sect committed suicide. The fact that there were 276 children among the dead adds to the horror. The spiritual leader of the sect, Jim Jones, gave the order, according to which members of the community first gave a solution of cyanide potassium to their children, and then drank it themselves. Among hundreds of corpses, Jim himself was found, only he died from a gunshot wound. It is unclear in the end whether he committed suicide or someone killed him. The investigation showed that the mass suicide was due to the fact that some members of the sect decided to leave its ranks. Several parishioners had recently announced this to Congressman Leo Ryan. He visited the community in Johnstown, investigating numerous complaints from relatives of believers. The politician invited everyone to fly away with him. However, the senator with the defectors failed to do this. Already on the runway, a tractor with a trailer, where armed people were sitting, drove up to the plane. They started shooting at the passengers. As a result, five people died - Senator Ryan himself, a reporter and cameraman of the NBC channel, a photographer and one of the cultists. After the act of mass suicide, the authorities discovered an audio recording of the sect leader's address to his followers. Jim Jones told his fans that after the assassination of the senator, the ongoing negotiations with the Soviet Union lost their meaning. Previously, the leader of the community negotiated with our country to relocate the community there. Jones was afraid that the children would fall under the influence of the American authorities and become their puppets. He stated that the members of the movement had no choice but to leave this world.
Citizens of Denpasar, Bali, 1906. In the language of the people of Bali, there is the term puputan. Translated from this language, it means "fight to the death." In fact, this term means mass suicide, carried out for ritual purposes. So the people find a way out of the shame of defeat and enslavement. There have been many Puputans in the history of Bali, but the most famous took place on September 14, 1906. Then, just before the battle with the Dutch invaders, all the nobility of the city of Denpasar, led by the Raja, committed suicide with the help of daggers. The conquerors entered the city practically without resistance, and when they approached the palace of the ruler of the Badung province, they saw a strange sight. A ceremonial ceremony in luxurious white funeral robes and gold ornaments emerged from the building to the beat of drums. Residents of Denpasar silently approached the astonished Europeans. And then, unexpectedly, the chief priest drove a dagger into the heart of the rajah - this became the go-ahead for the start of the mass ritual. The participants of the march began to kill themselves and each other, throwing gold and jewelry at the soldiers with hatred and contempt. In the course of this puputan, about a thousand townspeople lost their lives. In Bali, these events are considered a model of selfless resistance to invaders. Today, a monument has been erected in the place where the palace used to be. The monument depicts a man with a woman and a child, who are armed with ritual knives of the Malays.
Residents of Demmin, Germany, 1945. The Asian traditions were clearly unfamiliar to the Germans, but in 1945 they did something similar. When the troops of the Red Army entered the city of Demmin on May 1, the townspeople, frightened by rumors about the brutality of the soldiers, began to kill themselves in a hurry. And there was not only one weapon - a ritual dagger. The Germans used whatever was at their fingertips. There were those who cut their veins, others poisoned themselves, hanged themselves, drowned themselves or shot themselves. Many residents of Demmin left our world with whole families altogether. At the same time, there were cases when parents, after killing their children, for some reason could not follow them. Someone was rescued, but someone miscalculated the toxic dose. These unfortunates had to live with a heavy moral burden for the rest of their lives. According to various estimates, in just a few days of that May madness, from 900 to 2500 residents of Demmin committed suicide.
Residents of the city of Chittorgarh, India, 1303, 1535 and 1568. It is no coincidence that there are as many as three dates of mass suicides next to this city. Such a ritual act has already become a kind of tradition for the townspeople, a way to avoid being captured. In Rajpur there is an ancient tradition - if the city does not have the opportunity to fight off the besiegers, then its inhabitants must carry out mass self-immolation. And this rite consists of two parts. First, women and children voluntarily go to the fire, this is called jauhar. After their death, it is the turn of men. Their part of the ritual is called saka and is the last mortal battle from which no one returns. In 1303, during the siege of the city of Chittorgarh by the troops of the Sultan of Delhi Ala-ud-din Khilji, the ritual was initiated by the ladies of the court, headed by Queen Rani Padmini. After the self-immolation of seven hundred women, men had no choice but to prove their courage by rising to mortal combat. A similar rite was performed in 1535 during the siege of the city by the troops of the Gujarat Sultan Bahadur Shah. And in 1568, Akbar I the Great, who had already attacked the city, faced mass suicide.
Teutonic Women, Aix-en-Provence, France, 102. This mass suicide was one of the earliest in history. It happened in 102 in the south of France. There was a battle that went down in history as the battle of the Aqua Sextius. In its course, the Romans under the command of Gaius Maria completely defeated the Teutonic tribes. The terms of surrender were such that the Teutons had to give the victors into slavery 300 of their wives. Upon learning of this, the women begged their new masters to let them go to serve in the temples of Ceres and Venus. And when the Romans refused to do this, the women killed their children and then committed suicide. And this bold act entered the legends of not only the Germanic peoples, but also Rome. Even enemies marveled at how women displayed heroism and selfless devotion to their homeland.
Members of the Order of the Solar Temple Religious Movement, Switzerland and Canada, 1994-1997. It also happens that suicide brings people posthumous fame and even glory. Few had heard of the Order of the Solar Temple until an event happened in 1994, news of which spread throughout the world. But the sect was born back in 1984. It was founded in Geneva by the teacher Joseph di Mambo and the doctor Luc Joret. Over time, the head office of the religious organization moved to Zurich, and branches began to appear in various cities of Switzerland, Canada and other countries. Believers believed that the Apocalypse would take place in the mid-1990s. And in order to earn God's forgiveness and move to a new spiritual level, one must voluntarily leave this world. In accordance with these ideas, on the night of October 4-5, 1994, about fifty members of the Order in Switzerland and Canada committed suicide. The survivors set fire to those buildings in which the ceremony took place. A year later, another 16 followers of the ideas of di Mambro and Jore found a similar path to salvation. The last wave took place in March 1997, when five more believers committed suicide. In their suicide notes, they said that this step is a way to escape from a hypocritical world, complete oppression of human freedom. At the same time, members of the order became famous not only for mass suicides, but also for the very real murder of an innocent. In October 1994, they brutally executed three-month-old Emmanuel Duthoit in Quebec, Canada. And di Mambro is to blame for everything, who could recognize the Antichrist in the baby. As a result, the child was pierced several times with a wooden stake.
Adepts of the Heavenly Gates Religious Movement, Santa Fe Ranch, California, USA, 1997. The name of this cult can be translated as "Heaven's Gate" or "Heaven's Gate". Its founder was Marshall Appleweist, himself a rather scandalous person and a dubious prophet. He declared himself the incarnation of Jesus Christ and urged his believers to abandon the pleasures and vanity of life, because the End of the world will soon come, and everyone will go to heaven. Many of Applewhite's ideas are clearly ridiculous and absurd, but this did not stop him from instilling suicidal thoughts in some of his followers. Marshall convinced his Gateway adepts that they would need an alien spaceship to travel to heaven. He followed the comet Hale-Bopp. To get on the spaceship, the members of the sect had to commit suicide. Not long before this, some members of the sect also subjected themselves to castration, preparing for a future asexual life. And on March 24, 1997, that very long-awaited journey began. Preparation for it lasted for three days. The believers watched their favorite science fiction movie in the cinema once again, ate vegetarian pizza and drove home. Fans of the Marshall teachings drank phenobarbital mixed with vodka and pineapple juice. And if the poison is not strong enough, the believers also covered the heads of those who fell asleep with plastic bags and purple cloths, following them. At the same time, believers left their suicide messages on the Internet. Each rescued person had $ 5.75 in his pocket. Next to the suicides were carefully packed things that could be useful to them in a new life.
Jewish rebels, Masada fortress, Israel, 73. Not far from the modern Israeli city of Arad, on the coast of the Dead Sea, was the ancient fortress Masada. It was besieged in 73 by Roman troops - the first Jewish war was going on. However, the defenders showed unprecedented tenacity, not wanting to give up. And only when the Romans set fire to the wooden walls of the fortress, the fate of Masada was decided. The fortress was besieged by 15 thousand selected legionnaires, and inside the dilapidated fortress they found only the bodies of 960 people. It turns out that in order to avoid capture, the men of Masada killed their wives and children. Then, according to the lot, those ten people were chosen who killed everyone else. This feat of Jewish soldiers was included in the work of the historian Josephus Flavius "The Jewish War". True, today there is a version that not so many defenders committed suicide, and Flavius simply exaggerated. The fact is that during the excavations the remains of only 28 people were found, but the rest of the bodies could well have completely burned up in the course of the fire.
Dance of the Women Zalongo, Greece, 1803. In 1803, a small Greco-Albanian tribe, the Suuliots, were defeated by the army of Ali Pasha Tepelensky. This ruler of Albania was a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. And the decisive battle took place near the village of Zalongo. When it became clear to its inhabitants that the Suuliots were being defeated, the local women decided to commit suicide. After all, everyone had heard about what life is like for the slaves of Ali Pasha. And mass suicide happened in an unusual way - with songs and dances. On the last journey, the women went to the abyss, where they pushed their children and jumped after them. Later this group act was called "The Dance of the Salon". And in memory of the brave act of women of the Suuliot tribe, a monument is erected next to the cliff. The monument depicts the very deadly dance of rebellious women.
Saipan, Japan, 1945. In 1945, the fate of Japan in World War II was already decided. Many inhabitants and warriors of the Land of the Rising Sun, unable to survive the shame, killed themselves. The Battle of Saipan went down in history as a manifestation not of the military's strategic talents, but as an act of mass defiance. Japanese propaganda trumpeted with might and main that after the seizure of the island by the Americans, local residents would be tortured. The authorities ordered all survivors to prove their loyalty to the emperor and commit an act of self-destruction. Local residents began to massively jump off the rocks and drown themselves in the sea. The most massive scene took place on the Marpi cliff, 250 meters high. In front of the Americans, entire families of Japanese people jumped down from there. First, the parents pushed small children together, then the older ones and followed them. The massive act of disobedience cost the lives of 22,000 civilians.
World Trade Center, USA, 2001. In this case, it is worth saying that suicide has become for many an alternative to another, more painful death. After terrorist planes attacked the World Trade Center towers, hundreds of people were trapped, unable to get out of the fire. Many of them chose to throw themselves out the windows and crash on the ground. And there were about 200 such involuntary suicides. The last moments of their lives were broadcast on television all over the world.
Movement for the Revival of the Ten Commandments of God, Uganda, 2000. This sect in an African country was organized by the former prostitute Kredonia Mverinda in 1989. She stated that she is the messenger of the Virgin Mary. The woman attracted several hundred believers with her speeches and forced them to give her all their means in anticipation of the imminent End of the World. But when it did not happen again on January 1, 2000, Mverinda moved it to March 17. The believers gathered in the church and closed themselves from the inside. Soon, the building was blown up by the burning of gasoline tanks. During the investigation, it turned out that several dozen more bodies were found in the graves. In total, 778 members of the sect became victims of a series of murders and suicides. Credonia Querinda herself fled.