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There is a stereotype that social life is the lot of men, and women should stay at home, doing housework and children. A real rebellion settles in their souls - against injustice, social order, violation of human rights.
At the same time, women give their voice even in Muslim countries, where it is much more difficult to do this. Our story will go about the most rebellious women in history.
Tawakkul Karman, Yemen. This woman is only 32 years old and the mother of three children. Tawakkul leads organizations of Yemeni women journalists. This group is engaged in the protection of human freedom and human rights. With renewed vigor, women have intensified following a wave of protests in Libya and Egypt. Karman's activities are putting pressure on the country's President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who has been heading Yemen since 1978. The fight against him began in 2007 - every Tuesday, a brave woman staged protests in front of the University of Sana'a. Although Tavakkul insists on a peaceful solution to the transfer of power, she has been arrested several times. Thanks to her activities, in early 2013, a wave of protests swept across the country, because 40% of Yemen's population lives on less than $ 2 a day. Saleh is currently rejecting all democratic plans to transfer power. Karman told TIME magazine that thanks to the Tunisian revolution, people realized that even the most indestructible regimes could fall.
Aung San Suu Kyi, Burma. In November 2010, this woman, a Nobel laureate, was finally released after 15 years under house arrest. For millions of Burmese citizens, she is known as the Lady; she is revered more as a goddess, and not as a rebel. Suu Kyi has been the leader of democratic processes throughout Southeast Asia, championing rights and campaigning for peaceful change. The woman is the daughter of a murdered national hero; she was forced to spend most of her life away from her homeland. Burmese lived in the USA, India, Japan and England. In the latter country, she married and gave birth to two sons. And in 1988, the woman returned back to care for her sick mother. At that time, the protesters just openly spoke out against the authorities, who opened fire on the demonstrators. Then the Lady first spoke to the people. In 1989, Suu Kyi founded the National League for Democracy. This party won the elections, which should have made its leader the prime minister. However, the current government refused to hand over the reins of government, changing the constitution so that Suu Kyi never came to power. Despite this, Suu Kyi is not going to give up. Since her release, she has sought friendly negotiations with the hostile junta that imprisoned her. The lady says she is ready to have tea or coffee with her opponents and calmly discuss Burma's problems. A brave woman is trying to make her country more democratic.
Corazon Aquino, Philippines. This woman calls herself “a simple housewife”. However, this did not stop the Filipina in 1986 from calling on her people to revolution and overthrowing the dictator Ferdinand Marcos. But he headed the country for 20 years. Aquino has gone from the wife of a senator to the president of the country. It all began with the murder in 1983 of her husband, who had returned from exile to fight the Marcos regime. When the dictator called early elections, the woman decided to continue her husband's work. Despite the fact that Marcos proclaimed his victory, the opposition did not recognize this. As a result, a wave of peaceful protests swept across the country, which forced the dictator to resign. The emotional performances of the entire people forced the military to go over to their side. After the resignation of Marcos, it was Aquino who became the new president of the country. Despite accusations of corruption and attempted coup, the brave woman put the country on a democratic track. After leaving her post, Aquino remained in politics, defending her ideals.
Fulan Devi, India. And this woman's nickname is "the queen of the bandits." On the one hand, she is considered the protector of the poorest segments of the country's population, and on the other, she was one of the most famous modern robbers. After early marriage and sexual abuse, Devi began a series of high caste robberies in northern and central India. In 1981, her gang of bandits killed more than 20 noble men in the village where her former lover was killed. As a result, the robber surrendered to the authorities, agreeing to serve 11 years in prison. Two years after her release, Fulan Devi was elected to parliament. Although spiteful critics claim that the woman did nothing during her two terms in session, Devi's attitude towards the caste system made her a real symbol of the struggle for the rights of the poor and oppressed.
Angela Davis, USA. By the age of 26, Angela had already become a prominent scientist, politician, and a figure wanted by the FBI. Davis was born in Birmingham, Alabama. After a year at the Sorbonne, the black activist dived into America's ocean of racial intolerance. In the late 1960s, Angela was a member of the Student Nonviolent Resistance Coordinating Committee, and then became active in the US Communist Party and in the Black Panther group. Soon, the authorities accused the woman of murder, supplying weapons and taking hostages. In 1970, Davis tried to free her loved one right in the courtroom, which led to the death of people, including the judge. After the capture, the woman was held in prison for 18 months, eventually acquitted. Despite protests from California Governor Ronald Reagan, the activist began teaching at several universities. She continued her activities in the US Communist Party and even ran for vice president of the country in 1984. Today Angela Davis is a professor of philosophy at the University of California, active in the fight for the rights of women and prisoners, speaking out against the death penalty and homophobia.
Golda Meir, Israel. The best characterization of this woman was left by David Ben-Gurion, who called her "the only man in his office." Fame came to Golda Meir in 1973, it was she who served as the country's prime minister during the Yom Kippur War. Also, the woman left her mark during the Zionist revolutionary movements during the formation of the country. After the arrest of the main leaders, Meir became the main negotiator between Jews and Great Britain. The activist was in close contact with the armed forces of the Jewish resistance. When, in 1947, the Arabs rejected the UN recommendations for the partition of Palestine, Golda Meir said that in the coming war, young Jewish settlements would remain undefeated. In 1948, the woman visited America, from where she brought $ 50 million from the Jewish diaspora. Ben-Gurion praised Meir's contribution, because it was largely thanks to this money that the State of Israel was born. Golda Meir became one of the 25 people who signed Israel's Declaration of Independence.
Wilma Espin, Cuba. Many of the leaders of the Cuban Revolution were part of the professional elite. In other words, they were wealthy men. So, Fidel Castro was a lawyer, and Ernesto Che Guevara studied medicine. However, it was not they who conveyed the spirit of the revolution best of all, but the “First Lady” of the communist revolution - Wilma Espin. Her father was a lawyer for the Bacardi company, and the woman herself was trained as a chemist after spending a whole year at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In the late 1950s, Espin took up arms against the Batista regime. The image of a brave revolutionary in military uniform and her public appearances finally dispelled the myth of an obedient Caribbean woman.
Janet Jagan, Guyana. The Chicago-born woman believed that workers needed to better fight for their rights. Having met Cheddy Jagan, a dental student from Guyana, Janet found in him not only a future husband, but also a like-minded person. Actively studying the works of Lenin, in 1946 the couple founded the People's Progressive Party in Guyana. This movement not only followed the ideals of Marxism, but also fought for decolonization from Britain. Jagan organized a series of strikes in what was then British Guyana, for which the angry British Prime Minister Winston Churchill even hid the activist in prison. After leaving there, the woman was able to remain in politics, despite attempts to remove her from leadership positions. After the failure of the leftist government in the 1960s, Janet stepped down to a sideline, becoming editor of the opposition newspaper Zerkalo. And in 1997, Jagan became president of a country that had by that time got rid of British rule and nationalized most of its economy.
Jiang Qing, China. It is safe to say that this woman lived two different lives. In the first, she recognized extreme poverty. I tried myself in the field of an actress and was unsuccessfully married several times. In the second, the Chinese woman became an active member of the Communist Party, making a significant contribution to the events of the Cultural Revolution. Despite the ambiguity of fate, Jiang Qing has remained in history as one of the most brutal, ruthless and uncompromising revolutionaries in history. In 1938, the woman became the wife of party chairman Mao Zedong, which helped her use her status to satisfy her lust for power. "Madame" quickly climbed the party ladder, eventually becoming the leader of the infamous "Gang of Four." This group of Chinese politicians is responsible for the events of 1966-1069. Historians have calculated that during this time the actions of the authorities led to the death of at least 500 thousand people, many cultural objects, ancient books, paintings, buildings were destroyed. Although it was Jiang who took an active part in all this, she shifted the responsibility to Mao. According to the activist, she "was just Mao's dog, who was told who to bite." Criminal charges were brought against Jiang Qing, and she herself refused to repent. As a result, after 10 years in prison, the woman committed suicide in 1991.
Nadezhda Krupskaya, Russia. A rebellious spirit was present in this woman from childhood. Even as a girl, she played snowballs with the children outside the factory where her father worked, ambushing managers. Krupskaya received her education at a liberal school, and then began teaching at an evening school for workers. In 1889, in underground circles, the girl learned about Marxism. Together with Lenin, Krupskaya in 1895 participated in the creation of the Union for the Emancipation of the Working Class. After being arrested and exiled to Siberia, the couple got married. After gaining freedom in 1901, Krupskaya followed Lenin everywhere. The revolutionaries visited Munich, Geneva, London, trying to publish the Marxist newspaper Iskra. In 1917, Krupskaya and Lenin returned to Russia. Vladimir Ilyich became a key figure for the Bolshevik Party, taking part in the October Revolution in 1917. In the 1920s-1930s, Krupskaya became one of the founders of the Soviet system of public education.
Susan B. Anthony, USA. A school teacher once told young Susan that "a girl should only know how to read the Bible and how to count change." This phrase offended her so much that it predetermined her fate. In 1846, a 26-year-old teacher started a company for equal pay for women teachers and men. After 5 years, she found an accomplice - lawyer Elizabeth Stanton, who defended the rights of women. The duo toured the country campaigning for equal suffrage for women. In 1868, these ideas began to be published in the newspaper "Revolution", and a year later, Susan Anthony founded the National Women's Suffrage Association. Needless to say, the men were constantly trying to stop her? In 1872, marshals arrested a brave woman for illegally voting in the presidential elections. The court fined Anthony $ 100, to which she declared that she would not pay a dollar for such an unfair fine. The activist died in 1906, and 14 years later, the 19th Amendment was adopted, which gave women the right to vote.
Emmeline Pankhurst, UK. This person is the best possible confirmation of the opinion that decently behaving women rarely change history. Pankhurst was the leader of the women's suffrage movement, but she was also a supporter of social uprising. The father encouraged the girl to take her active steps. At 20, Emmeline married attorney Richard Pankhurst, who shared her wife's views and encouraged her efforts in the League for Women's Rights. After the death of her husband in 1898, Emmeline plunged headlong into her work, forming a women's social and political union under the motto "Deeds, not words." Together with her eldest daughter, Christabelle Pankhurst, she held public demonstrations, not disdaining violent measures - arson, vandalism and hunger strikes. Unsurprisingly, the activist was often arrested. In 1912 alone, this happened 12 times, but the woman never gave up her ideas of equality. At the trial, Emmeline said: "We are not here because we are violators, but because we want to become legislators." While the activist's harsh methods are frowned upon, there is no doubt that she was instrumental in helping British women gain their rights. In 1928, the government finally passed legislation giving women the right to vote. In the same year, Pankhurst also died, having completed her mission.
Harriet Tubman, USA. This woman was born into slavery. Explaining her decision to fight him, Harriet quoted the famous phrase: “There are two things to which I have the right - freedom or death. If I can't get the first, then I'll have to choose the second. " Choosing freedom, Tubman fled her home state of Maryland. A year later, the brave woman returned to help her family leave the owner. This was the first of her 19 slave campaigns. Harriet Tubman used the Underground Railroad to save over 300 slaves. Laws of 1850 required the state to return the fugitive slaves to their masters, then Tubman helped the unfortunate move further north to Canada. During the Civil War, a woman even led a military expedition, freeing 700 slaves in South Carolina. In addition to the struggle to free women from slavery, Tubman was also active for their suffrage.
Mary Wollstonecraft, UK. In 18th century British society, men ruled. Mary Wollstonecraft has publicly made the bold statement that women are more than possessions. In her struggle, the activist collaborated with Edmund Burke, a prominent political thinker of the time. Mary's most famous works were her "Defense of Human Rights" (1790) and "Defense of the Rights of Women" (1791). In them, the author demonstrated her strong political views on gender equality. According to Mary, girls are brought up like empty-headed toys, which leads to bankruptcy and loss of management of society. It is these views of life that make up the true face of a woman, one of the earliest and most influential rebels.
Jeanne d'Arc, France. The story of this girl shows how a rebellious nature can change the course of history.Jeanne was an ordinary French peasant woman, but dreams and visions began to haunt her. The voices of the saints told the girl that she alone could resist the English invaders who had captured most of northern France. Incredibly, the maiden was able to convince the Dauphin to give her troops and in 1429 lifted the siege from a strategic point, the city of Orleans. This played a decisive role in the Hundred Years War. After a couple of years, Jeanne fell into the hands of the British and was burned on charges of witchcraft. The French did not even try to save their heroine. Jeanne d'Arc was canonized by the Vatican in 1920; today she is considered one of the patrons of France.
Boudica, Britain. The great Roman Empire in the 1st century AD experienced a shock. In a remote corner of Britain, local tribes revolted. The rebels were led by the woman Boudica, queen of the Icenes. They were a peaceful people who recognized the rule of the Romans. But after the death of Boudica's husband, the empire decided to annex these lands for itself, she herself was publicly whipped, and her daughters were raped. When the military left for Wales, Boudica revolted, leading a coalition of tribes. The rebels destroyed several cities, including ancient London, and many British sympathizers were killed. This uprising even forced the authorities to consider leaving the island's problem areas altogether. Nevertheless, the trained and equipped Romans eventually defeated the rebels. According to some reports, Boudica preferred suicide to shameful captivity. This uprising was the first step towards the liberation of England from the oppression of the Roman Empire. In the 19th century, the name Boudica became popular in Great Britain, Queen Victoria called her a symbol of her superpower, although in fact the rebellious person was fighting against the empire.